Climate & Geography


The rain forest climate is very humid because of the 250 cm of rain fall it gets per year. This type of climate I found near the equator. The Rain forest is always hot and wet. In the rain forest it rains more than 90 days a year, and the sun still shines throw the storm. The main plant in this biome are the trees. Trees in this climate reach a height of more than 164 feet.The forest floor is called understory.

The average temperature of a rain forest is about 77° Fahrenheit. The rain forest is about the same temperature all year round. The temperature never drops below 64° Fahrenheit. Rain forests are so hot because they are found near the equator. The closer to the equator you are, the more solar radiation there is. The more solar radiation there is, the hotter it is. Rain forest are never found in climates which have temperatures 32° Fahrenheit and below because the plant life will not be able to live because they aren't adapted to frost. All the plants will die out if the rain forest is cooler.

The rainforests has many different mammals, reptiles, birds and invertebrates. More than half of the world's species of plants and animals are found in the rainforest. This amounts to over 5 million species of plants and animals. The ocean is one of the major neighboring biomes of the rainforest.

Layers


The rainforest is divided into five different parts, each with different plants and animals that adapt for life in the particular area. The layers are: the floor layer, the shrub layer, the understory layer, the canopy layer and the emergent layer. Only the emergent layer is unique to tropical rainforests, while the other layers are also found in temperate rainforests.

The emergent layer contains a small number of very large trees which grow above the general canopy, reaching heights of 45-55 m, although on occasion a few species will grow to 70 m or 80 m tall. They need to be able to withstand the hot temperatures and strong winds. Eagles, butterflies, bats and certain monkeys inhabit this layer.

Location


Tropical rainforests are mostly found near the equator. They are common in Asia, Africa, South America, Central America, and on many of the Pacific Islands. 60% of these rainforest are found in Brazil. Others are found in Guiana, Surinam, Venezuela, Colombia, Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador and Guyana. The Amazon Basin is the largest Rainforest I the world. Its about 23 million square miles.

Human Stressors/Impact on the tropical rainforests


1. Logging
  • We are losing up to 137 plant and animal species PER DAY from deforestation
  • One steel plant in Brazil needs millions of tons of wood in just one year
  • 200 million tons of wood is used a year for the paper industry
2. Pollution
  • Brazil’s Atlantic Forest was greatly damaged by air pollution in the 1970s and 1980s
  • Also affected by oil spills, toxic by-products, and mining accidents
  • The constant dumping of wastes have effected the tropical countries (and therefore rainforests) greatly.
3. Slash and Burn Agriculture
  • Burning the soil makes in infertile rapidly which then causes vegetaion to decrease. The lack of vegetation means less plants to turn carbon dioxide into oxygen which then in turn means more carbon dioxide in the environment.

Other Random Facts on Human Impact


  • Most deforestation takes place in Brazil
  • Amount of rainforest depleted from 14% to 6%
  • It is thought that the remaining 6% should last up to 6%
  • The amount of Indians living in the rainforest depleted from 10 million to 200,000 in 500 years
  • More and more rainforests are being destroyed merely for the purpose of grazing land for animals being raised for slaughter.
  • To set up one plant operation, over 5,000 square miles of land was burned down and then replanted.
  • This single manufacturing plant used up to 2,000 tons of surrounding rainforest wood every day for electricity.


Major Products/Exports/Goods/Services of Biome


At least 80% of the developed world's diet originated in the tropical rainforest. Its bountiful gifts to the world include fruits like avocados, coconuts, figs, oranges, lemons, grapefruit, bananas, guavas, pineapples, mangos and tomatoes; vegetables including corn, potatoes, rice, winter squash and yams; spices like black pepper, cayenne, chocolate, cinnamon, cloves, ginger, sugar cane, tumeric, coffee and vanilla and nuts including Brazil nuts and cashews.

Below is a list of some products which originated in the rainforests, and their uses.

  • Fruit: pineapples, bananas, passion fruits, oranges, lemons. limes, grapefruits and tangerines.
  • Vegetables: tomatoes, avocados, aubergines and many types of bean.
  • Nuts: brazil nuts, cashew nuts, peanuts, sesame seeds and coconuts.
  • Species: chillies, cayenne and black peppers, cloves, nutmeg, vanilla, cinnamon and turmeric.
  • Drinks: tea, coffee, cocoa, chocolate, kola nut extract used in Coca-Cola.
  • Timber: mahogany, teak and other hardwoods for making quality furniture, balsa for insulation and packaging.
  • Fibres and canes: rattans for ropes and matting, jute for ropes and packaging, kapok for stuffing furniture and insulation, bamboo for furniture, boxes and garden canes.
  • Gums and resins: rubber for household and industrial goods, copals for paints and varnishes, chicle gum used for chewing gum, balata used in golf balls.
  • Oils: patchouli oil for perfumes, eucalyptus oil for perfumes and cough medicines, croton oil for flavouring sweets and drinks, oil of lime for ice cream and sweets, palm oil for ice cream, cooking and soap, coconut oil for sweets.

Vegetation


Most rainforest plants are very diverse in the ways they catch, gather, and absorb energy such as the Venus flytrap scene here.
These plants are special because they actually catch their food in a trap and eat it but they also gather energy from the sun too.
Other plants have very high defense as compared to basic grass or other plants like Bengal bamboo scene here
is not only strong but can hold its own in it’s own difficult environment.

Animals and Adaptations in the Tropical Rainforest


3 examples of animals that live in the rainforest


Primates

Apes
Prosimians
Monkey

Adaptations

Fur: protections from insects

Cuddly during cold season: Would keep warm by staying close to each other and stay there for long periods of time.

Use of Rainforest: Most primates create simple tools in the rainforest to accomplish small tasks.


Reptiles

Lizard
Anaconda
Python
Turtle
Iguana

Adaptations

The adaptations of the many species of lizards is legendary. There are undoubtedly many, many we will never even know about as the lizards of smaller size do not fossilize well. But just looking around at the thousands of existing species gives a clue to the great diversity there was and still is. The very long and sticky tongues of the true chameleons which can snare prey more than a body length away are a good example. The ability to reproduce without males is another. Did some of the dinosaurs also employ this method"? It is not all that unlikely. Having an expendable tail, large colored tongue for defense, color changing for protection, large expandable frills, playing dead, and 360 degree independent eye movement are some of the other successful adaptation lizards are capable of.


Jungle Cats
Ocelot
Jaguar
Panther
Tiger

Adaptation

The skin of a cat is very loose. This adaptation lessens the chances of injury from desperately struggling prey or attacks from rivals and other predators

Agility -- due to their powerful back legs and flexible spine, cats are noted for their ability to leap long distances, often as much as six times their entire length

Agility -- cats are able to "always" land on their feet because they have a very flexible spine, enabling them to orient their bodies aided by a balancing organ in their inner ear

Agility -- vertical surfaces can be climbed without claws, by the cat running at the edifice. As the cat impacts the surface it uses momentum to provide grip while it runs upward

Art -- a black cat is standing at the end of the bed in the painter Manet's "Olympia." It is used as a symbol to denote corruption and moral decay in society

Behavior -- such as growling, hissing, hair raising, back arching, teeth barring, ear flattening and side leaning are designed to win agreements without injury


Cannibalism -- does occur in cats, but only in certain conditions. Larger cat species, will however, kill and eat smaller cat species whenever they get the chance

Cannibalism -- after a change of leadership in a lion pride, it is common for the new dominant male to kill and even eat any cubs, so that only cubs carrying his genes will be cared for

Claws -- climbing up trees and along branches is easy for most cats because they can employ a combination of claws, gripping limbs, and a tail for balancing as they go

Claws -- in cats the equivalent of the thumb is known as the dewclaw. It is raised above the ground on the inside of the front leg and is used as a hook for holding down prey during the kill

Claws -- cat claws should probably be termed as protractible as opposed to retractable. This is because muscles are required to stick them out, but they pull back automatically.

Color -- sometimes cheetahs are born with striped instead of the usual spots on their coats. They are known as 'king cheetahs' and were once thought to be a separate species.





Sources

vegetation
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/rnfrst_plant_page.htm
http://www.wallwork.me.uk/garden/venus_fly_trap_large.jpg
http://www.blueplanetbiomes.org/bengal_bamboo.htm

Corey Nazario-Animals and Adaptations
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primate
http://www.seaworld.org/infobooks/Gorilla/physchargor.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reptile

http://id.essortment.com/reptilessnakes_rhus.htm

http://trexmuseum.org/whatsrept.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Felidae#Physical_appearance

http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/wild_cats/92511

exports

HUMAN STRESSES