Location and geography

The taiga is the largest biome. It covers much or Russia, Northern Europe, and Canada. It also is found in the higher elevations in the northern and western part of the United States. It is found in areas with high latitudes, generally between 50 degrees latitude and the Arctic Circle. Many bogs and lakes are found throughout the area. It runs along the southern border of the arctic tundra. To the south it is mainly bordered by the grassland and deciduous forest biomes.



Major Products/Exports/Goods/Services of Biome

Major industries located in the Taiga are logging, mining, and hydroelectric development.
Major Exports: wood, uranium, radium, silver, soft wood timber, and Christmas trees, oil and gas extractions.


Taiga Animals and Adaptations

Most animals got use to warmer climates and one of the cold weather to. Some animals have adapted to life in the taiga by hibernating when temperatures changes. Other animals have been adapted to the cold temperatures is by producing a layer of insulating feathers or fur to keep them warm from the cold weather. The animals that have dark brown for the summer and it could change to white when the winter comes because if they don't then they will die from the cold weather. This adaptation helps the ermine blend into its surroundings and makes more difficult for the ermine's predators to spot them.
The cold climate of the taiga makes it a difficult place for many animals to live on. Many animals have thick coats of fur to keep them warm from the cold. Others migrate to warmer areas in the chilly winters. Animal populations are mainly seed-eating squirrels and jays and small mammals like ermine and moles and larger browsing animals such as deer, moose, elk, and snowshoe hare. The bogs and ponds in the taiga provide a great summertime breeding place for many different insects so they can eat. Migratory birds often come to the taiga to nest and feed on all their insects. The typical predators for this area are grizzly bears, wolves, lynxes and wolverines. These are pretty ferocious, so their prey must adapt to flourish. Some animals hide from predators by changing color to blend into the different summer and winter.

Sorce-1. http://www.nceas.ucsb.edu/nceas-web/kids/biomes/taiga.htm
Sorce-2. http://www.kidcyber.com.au/topics/biomes.htm

Taiga Climate

The taiga climate is for the most part dominated by cold arctic air. Exceptionally cold winds bring bitterly cold air from the Arctic Circle. Because of earth's tilt, the taiga is turned away from the sun in the winter. Less of the sun's radiation reaches the ground to warm it up.

Winter, with its freezing cold temperatures, lasts for six to seven months. Summer is a rainy, hot and short season in the taiga. Fall is the shortest season for taiga. Spring brings flowers, and warmer temperatures begin to enter the area. The lowest and highest temperatures that occur for taiga are the following:

-Winter's LOWEST temperature in taiga is -65°F.
-Winter's HIGHEST temperature is 30° F.
-Summer's LOWEST temperature is 30° F.
-Summer's HIGHEST temperature is 70° F.

The temperature range, as you can see, is -65° F to 70°F (-54 to 21° C). For half of the year, the average temperature is below freezing. In the winter the average air temperature is warmer than it is for tundra, which lies north of the taiga.

The average precipitation per year is about 40 inches. The average precipitation for the summer is between 10-20 inches. The average precipitation for the winter is between 20-40 inches. The type of precipitation that falls in the taiga climate are rain in summer and
mostly snow in winter.

The corresponding biome would be the Taiga biome. The global range for taiga goes all around the world from Alaska, to Canada, Scandinavia, Russia and China. Taiga climate is only found in the northern hemisphere, because there isn't enough landmass in the southern hemisphere to create a taiga climate there. The taiga is a moist sub arctic forest that begins where the Tundra ends. The winters are long, dark and cold with lots of snow, and the summers are warm and short when the daylight can be up to 20 hours long.

The major type of vegetation in the taiga biome is coniferous evergreens. Needles on evergreen trees of the taiga are thin, wax-covered and they do not fall off in the fall. The conifers of the taiga keep their leaves all year around. Needles are the leaves in the taiga biome. Conifers are adapted to the taiga environment because they lose less water and shed snow more easily because of their conical shape.

Some types of adaptations in the animals are migration, heavier coats of fur, and some change color, such as the snow-shoe rabbit. Mice and moles live in tunnels under the snow. Some animals that live in the taiga are bears, badger, beavers, reindeer, foxes, wolverine and squirrels. Many birds migrate to the taiga during the spring because there are so many insects to feed on after the snow melts.


Taiga Plants

There is not much diversity in the taiga, because many plants cannot survive such harsh conditions.

Lichens and mosses are important, but most of the plants are evergreen trees. There are many types of coniferous trees such as pine, spruce, hemlock, and fur.

The trees are narrow and grow very close together. This is so they can help protect each other from the weather.

Some common types of tress in the Taiga are as followed.

Balsam Fir
Common Name(s): Eastern Fir, Canadian Balsam, Blister Fir
Genus: Abies
Species: balsamea

The Balsam Fir is a small to medium sized native evergreen tree. It can grow to be 40 to 80 feet tall.

Black Spruce
Common Names: Black Spruce, Bog Spruce, Swamp Spruce, épinette noire
Genus: Picea
Species: mariana

The black spruce is very tall. It can grow to over 25 meters. This tree is very slim and grows in a spike shape

Common Names: bigcone Douglas-fir, Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir
Genus: Pseudotsuga
Species: menziesii
Parts Used: The trunk is used for lumber and the leaves can be steeped for tea.

This tree is very big, it can grow up to 60 feet tall. It is used mainly for lumber.

Eastern Red Cedar
Common Names: Red Cedar, grave yard tree
Genus: Juniperus
Species: virginiana

The Eastern Red Cedar is a small evergreen that commonly grows to a height of 10-50 feet. Its name is misleading since it is a juniper and not a cedar.

Jack Pine
Common Names: Eastern jack, Grey, Black, Black jack, Scrub, Prince's pine or Banksiana pine or Pin gris.
Genus: Pinus
Species: banksiana

The Jack pine usually grows to be twenty-seven meters tall. As it grows it gets rounder and rounder around the crown area. The Jack Pine gives most animals their nurturance. The tree gives its nurturance to mostly rodents.

Paper Birch
Common Names: White Birch, Canoe Birch, Silver Birch
Genus: Betula
Species: papyrifera
Parts Used: bark, wood and sap

Paper birch trees have a thin bark that looks like paper. Birch trees can grow in pairs or clusters.

Siberian Spruce
Genus: Pecea
Species: ovobata

The Siberian Spruce can grow up to about 30 meters high. The trunk of this spruce is about 1.5 meters in diameter. Siberian spruce is a coniferous tree so it grows pine needles and pine cones.

White Fir
Common Names: Silver Fir, Colorado Fir
Genus: Abies
Species: concolor
Parts Used: the wood is used for lumber and the whole tree is often used for Christmas trees.

The White Fir is 60-100 feet tall and can live up to 300 years making it a very large forest tree.

White Poplar
Common Names: Silver Poplar
Genus: Populus
Species: alba
Parts Used: wood

Poplars do not live very long. It is illegal to plant poplars along streets in some cities because they clog underground drainpipes and sewers.

White Spruce
Common Names: Canada Spruce, Cat Spruce, Single Spruce
Genus: Picea
Species: glauca
Parts Used: landscape trees

Spruce trees grow tall and most are shaped like pyramids. Some grow as tall as one hundred and fifty feet, specifically the white spruce.



Human Impacts on the Taiga.

There are many different human impacts on the Taiga forest. Including: deforestation, pollution (acid rain), mining, and many more. Carbon dioxide and many other heat trapping gases all build up in the atmosphere. If this continues, in the next century the average temperature will rise about 3 to 8 degrees Fahrenheit. The taiga is a very important factor in this problem because the forest continuously removes carbon gases from the atmosphere and replaces it all with oxygen. If we do not stop deforestation, the destruction of this forest cant accelerate global warming.

Pollution is another major problem for the forest. Nickel, aluminum and lead smelting plants, are a main cause of acid rain. This does damage to the forest, because all the rain water is what the forest feeds on. This is an human impact also because it is our technology that is emitting all of these pollutants out into the atmosphere.

Unfortunately, most of natural resources are under ground, like oil and coal. Well, to get to these natural resources that we need is to mine, and dig under ground, which at the same time means ruining many different animals and plants homes. Yes, we need these resources, but we also need this forest. Since logging is easier than extracting minerals from the ground, logging is the biggest threat to the Taiga. It does not matter what it is, we all need to help save our forests!